INTRODUCTION
Serbia is a country in the central part of the Balkan Peninsula in Southeast Europe and numbers around 7 million residents. Officialy state is named The Republic of Serbia, local – Republika Srbija. For most of the 20th century, it was a part of Yugoslavia.

It is bordered by four of the six former Yugoslavian socialist republics, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, Republic of Macedonia and Montenegro. It is also bordered with Albania, Bulgaria, Hungary and Romania. The total area of the territory of the Republic of Serbia amounts to 88.449 km² (including Kosovo).

Serbia does not have access to the sea, but across the Danube River, as part of the river system the Rhine-Main-Danube Canal, is linked with the North Sea and Mediterranean Sea.

Capital and largest city of Serbia is City of Belgrade, cosmopolitan city which is located at the confluence of the Sava and Danube rivers and ranks amoung the largest cities in Southeast Europe and numbers over than 1,6 million residents. Another large cities of Serbia, according to number of residents (over 100,000) are Novi Sad, Niš and Kragujevac. Novi Sad is also administrative, economic and cultural center of the Autonomous Province of Vojvodina which occupies 24.3 percent of the territory of the Republic of Serbia.

The ethnic composition of the population of Serbia is very diverse as a result of turbulent past in this area. Serbs are the majority, and there are 21 ethnic communities whose number exceeds two thousand members. The official language is Serbian and script is cyrilic.

Serbia is a unitary parliamentary constitutional republic with unicameral parliament, the General Assembly. The newly elected President of Serbia is Aleksandar Vučić (Presidential elections in 2017).
Serbia has its own coat of arms, national anthem and flag, determined by the Constitution and is militarily neutral state. The national colours of Serbia are red, blue and white, the Flag being commonly called trobojka (the tricolour). The national anthem is God of Justice.

Official national currency is Serbian dinar – RSD. RSD = 0, 00805 EUR.

Republic of Serbia makes 174 units of local government, 150 municipalities, 23 towns and City of Belgrade. According to the Constitution of the Republic of Serbia, a part of Serbia are autonomous provinces of Vojvodina and Kosovo and Metohija. Kosovo’s 2008 declaration of independence, which is recognized by 85 UN member states, the official Belgrade opposes.
Serbia is a member of numerous organizations such as the UN, Council of Europe, OSCE and Partnership for Peace. As an EU membership candidate since 2012 Serbia has been negotiating its, EU accession January 2014.

Republic of Serbia makes 174 units of local government, 150 municipalities, 23 towns and City of Belgrade.

GEOGRAPHY/TERITORY
Serbia is landlocked country located in the Balkans (a historical and geographical region of Southern Europe) and in the Pannonian Plain (a region of central Europe). The land area is about 88 499 km2.

Serbia has 30 areas, 24 cities, 30 ciy municipalities, 150 municipalities, 6158 settlements and 193 urban settlements.

Length of borders of Serbia is 2,361.7 kilometers (1,567.3 kilometers of land-based, river and lake 751.1 kilometer 43.3 kilometers). Serbia borders with Hungary in the north (174,7 km), Romania in the northeast (547,9 km), Bulgaria in the east (360,5 Km), Macedonia (282,9 km) and Albania (113,6 km) in the south, Bosnia and Herzegovina (370,9 km) and Croatia (261,7 km) in the west and Montenegro (249,5 km) in the southwest.

Serbia lies between latitudes 41° and 47° N, and longitudes 18° and 23° E.

With 29.1% of its territory covered by forest, Serbia is considered to be a middle-forested country, compared on a global scale to world forest coverage at 30%, and European average of 35%. Serbia’s terrain ranges from rich, fertile plains of the northern Vojvodina region, limestone ranges and basins in the east, and in the southeast ancient mountains and hills. The north is dominated by the Danube River. A tributary, the Morava River flows through the more mountainous southern regions.

Serbia has a mild climate, with a gradual transition between the four seasons with warm summers, with temperatures up to 30°C and cool, snowy winters – temperatures from – 5°C to 10°C.

HIDROLOGY

All rivers in Serbia belong to the drainage basins of three seas: Adriatic, Aegean and Black Sea.The longest river is the Danube, which flows through Serbia 588 kilometers from its 2,857 kilometers of the total flow. It is a border river (with Croatia on its northwestern). Apart from the Danube, the chief rivers are its tributaries Sava (incoming from West), Tisa (incoming from North), Drina (incoming from South and forming a natural border with Bosnia and Herzegovina) and Morava; only the latter flowing (almost) entirely through Serbia.

Rivers by length (km) in Republic of Serbia:
Tisa 168 empties into Danube
Sava 206 empties into Danube
Tamiš 118 empties into Danube
Zapadna Morava 308 emties into Velika Morava
Južna Morava 286 empties into Velika Morava
Ibar 272 empties into Zapadna Morava
Nišava 151 empties into Južna Morava
Timok3 202 empties into Danube
Velika Morava 185 empties into Danube

The largest lake in Serbia is Lake of Đerdap (253 km), the height above sea level is 70 m, maximum depth 92m and water volume 5000 (mill. m3). The Đerdap National Park stretches along the right bank of the Danube River from the Golubac fortress to the dam near Šip, Serbia. It spreads over 640 square kilometres and the park management office is in the town of Donji Milanovac on the Danube.

The largest canal is Canals of Bačka with 420,8 km of length.

MOUNTAINS

Hills and high mountains characterize the central body of Serbia. Its western margins include sections of the Dinaric Alps, and its eastern borderlands are part of the Carpathian and Rhodope mountain systems. Between these flanking mountains lie the Šumadija hills, the core of the medieval Serbian state.

The most significant mountains in Serbia are: Kopaonik, Stara Planina, Golija, Tara and Zlatibor.

Major mountain peaks (over 2000 m) in the Republic of Serbia:
Đeravica / Prokletije 2656
Peskovi / Šar-planina 2651
Bistra / Šar-planina 2609
Crni vrh Šar-planina 2585
Vrtop / Šar-planina 2555
Gusan Prokletije 2539
Bogdaš /Prokletije 2533
Žuti kamen / Prokletije 2522

ENVIRONMENT

In 2015, the quantity of drinking water abstracted from water supply industry increased by 2.8% relative to 2014 and the quantity distributed to households increased by 2.8% compared to 2014.

POPULATION
According to the 2011 census, Serbia has the 7.186, 862 inhabitants, of which the third are 499 176 men and 3 687 686 women. The average age of the population was 42.2 years, men 40.9 years and women 43.5 years. The share of people older than 18 years is 82.4% (5,923,734), for men 81.4% (2,849,124), and for women 83.4% (3,074,610).

Table 1. Basic data of Census

Basic data of Census  Total %
Number of population7 186 862100
Urban settlements4 271 87259.44
Rural settlements2 914 99040.56
Sex
Male3 499 17648.69
Female3 687 68651.31
Age
0-141 025 27814.27
15-644 911 26868.34
65 and more1 250 31617.4
Average age (years)42.2
Number of households2 487 886100
With one member555 46722.33
With 2 and 3 members1 114 73344.81
With 4 or more members817 68632.87
Average number of members2.9
Number of families2 125 772100
Married couple withou children600 72428.26
Consensual couple without children48 9432.3
Married couple with children1 040 17748.93
Consensual couple with children67 9713.2
Mother with children291 52213.71
Father with children76 4353.6
Number of dwellings3 231 931100
Occupied dwellings2 423 20874.98
Unoccupied dwellings589 71518.25
Dwellings used occasionally201 5196.24
Dwellings for performing activity17 4890.5
Source: Statistical Office of The Republic of Serbia
Source: Statistical office of the Republic of Serbia

According to the 2011 census, Serbs are the largest ethnic group in the country and constitute 83.3% of population. Hungarians are the largest ethnic minority in Serbia, concentrated predominately in northern Vojvodina and representing 3.5% of the country’s population (13% in Vojvodina). Roma people constitute 2% of the total population but unofficial estimates put their actual number to be twice or three as high. Bosniaks are third largest ethnic minority mainly inhabiting Raška region in southwestern part of the country. Other minority groups include Croats (0,9 %), Slovaks (0,8%), Albanians, Montenegrins (0,5%), Romanians (0,4 %), Macedonians (0,3 %) and Bulgarians (0,3%). The Chinese and Arabs are the only two significant immigrant minorities.

According to the final results of Census 2011, more than six million people in Serbia are members of Orthodox religion (84.6 percent of the total population). The second largest religion is Catholicism, with 350,000 (5%), while the third one is Islamic religion, with over 220,000 members (3 %).88.1 percent of the population of the Republic of Serbia consider Serbian language as their mother tongue, the second is Hungarian language (3.4 %), then Bosnian (1.9 %) and Roma language (1.4 %).

Census 2011 results indicate that 1.96% of the population in the Republic of Serbia are illiterate (aged 10 and over). Illiteracy is most common in women (82.1%) and in the age group 65 and over (70.5%). Of the total number of population of the Republic of Serbia aged over 15, 48.9% have completed secondary school, while one over six inhabitants has attained tertiary education. Among persons who have completed secondary school men are the most numerous, but among persons who have attained tertiary education women prevail over men.

In the Republic of Serbia, the unemployment rate, i.e. the share of unemployed persons in the total economically active population is 22.4%. The unemployment rate in women (23.6%) is somewhat higher than in men (21.6%).

Table2. Natural Changes

Natural changes of population in the Republic of Serbia, 2015 
Mid-year population 7095383
Live births65657
Stillbirths388
Deaths103678
Infant deaths346
Natural increase-38021
Indicators of population's changes, 2015
Live births per 1000 inhabitants9.3
Deaths per 1000 inhabitants14.6
Natural increase per 1000 inhabitants-5.3
Infant mortality per 1000 live births5.3
Mean age of mother at the delivery29.5
Mean age of mother at the delivery of first child28.2
Mean age of the deceased 74.7
Life expectancy 2015
Male72.6
Female77.7
Source: Statistical office of the Republic of Serbia
Source: Statistical office of the Republic of Serbia

GOVERNMENT
Serbia is a parliamentary republic composed of three branches of government: an executive, legislature and judiciary. The holder of the executive authority is the Government of the Republic of Serbia, which consists of 16 ministries. Government is elected by the National Assembly of the Republic of Serbia, consisting of the Prime Minister, one or more Vice Presidents and ministers.The prime minister is the head of government, while the president is the head of state. The president is elected by popular vote every five years. Head of the government is appointed by the president.

The national legislature of Serbia is a unicameral assembly of 250 deputies chosen in direct general elections for a period of four years.The deputies in the National Assembly elect the Government of the Republic of Serbia, which, together with the President of the Republic, represents the country’s executive authority.

Ministries of the Government:
Ministry of Finance
Ministry of Economy
Ministry of Agriculture and Environmental Protection
Ministry of Construction, Transport and Infrastructure
Ministry of Mining and Energy
Ministry of Trade, Tourism and Telecommunications
Ministry of Justice
Ministry of Public Administration and Local Self-Government
Ministry of the Interior
Ministry of Defence
Ministry of Foreign Affairs
Ministry of Education, Science and Technological Development
Ministry of Health
Ministry of Labour, Employment, Veteran and Social Affairs
Ministry of Youth and Sport
Ministry of Culture and the Media

According to the Constitution, the Government: establish and pursue policy, execute laws and other general acts of the National Assembly, adopt regulations and other general acts for the purpose of enforcement of laws, propose to the National Assembly laws and other general acts and gives its opinion on those when another mover proposes them, directs and coordinates the work of state administration and supervising their work And perform other duties specified by the Constitution and the law.

Also, the government is responsible to the National Assembly for the policy of the Republic of Serbia, for the enforcement of laws and other general acts of the National Assembly and for the work of the state administration.

Aleksandar Vučić (Belgrade, Yugoslavia, March 5, 1970), Serbian lawyer and politician, Prime Minister of the Republic of Serbia and President of the Serbian Progressive Party is the newly elected President of Serbia. He is taking office at 31 May 2017.

Serbia has a multi-party system with numerous parties, in which no one party often has a chance of gaining power alone. Parties must cooperate to form coalition governments.

List of parties represented in the National Assembly:
Serbian Progressive Party
Serbian Radical Party
Socialist Party of Serbia
It’s enough – Restart
Democratic Party
Social Democratic Party of Serbia
Party of United Pensioners of Serbia
Dveri
Democratic Party of Serbia
United Serbia
New Serbia
Social Democratic Party
League of Social Democrats of Vojvodina
Liberal Democratic Party
Alliance of Vojvodina Hungarians
League of Social Democrats of Vojvodina
Liberal Democratic Party
Alliance of Vojvodina Hungarians
Serbian Renewal Movement
Movement of Socialists
Serbian People’s Party
Greens of Serbia
Strength of Serbia Movement
Bosniak Democratic Union of Sandžak
Party of Democratic Action of Sandžak
Together for Serbia
New Party
Party for Democratic Action
Green Party
People’s Peasant Party
United Peasant Party

Diplomatic Missions
Currently, Serbia maintains 69 embassies abroad as well as 90 consulates and other representations. The Serbian capital Belgrade hosts 70 embassies, and in addition there are 28 consulates and other representations in Serbia.

ECONOMY

GDP: 37, 16 billion USD (2015)

GDP per capita: 5661,11 USD (2015)

Economy Serbia follows the modern model of the free market. The largest sector of the Serbian economy is service sector / tertiary sector, which covers a total of 63.8% of GDP. These were followed by the industrial sector (23.5% of GDP) and agricultural sector (12.7% of GDP).

Table 1. Gross domestic product (GDP) of the Republic Serbia

GROSS DOMESTIC PRODUCT (GDP) ОF THE REPUBLIC OF SERBIA                      
1995–201 6 (ESA 2010)
19951996199719981999 1)20002001200220032004200520062007200820092010201120122013201420152016 2)
GDP, at current prices – total, RSD mill. 59295112494.4142770.2183405.1214680.8413120.6820842.11037897.312201601451448.21751371.22055198.12355065.62744913.228800593067210.23407563.23584235.83876403.43908469.64043467.84200197.1
GDP – per capita, RSD5982.216488136811320.03285689914339.16306489118799.5421813528470.74048183954962.956734562109395.53934846138385.7346723163110.10720944194481.79905635235375.02642536277295.95447334319046.31786776373446.2986288393407.31151634420659.27754149470884.30224532497707.04618776540902.07663294548035.09975831569873.08507518593552.33161852
Mid-year population in thousands9911.8789937.6399956.6629755.8287540.4017516.3467503.4337500.0317480.5917463.1577440.7697411.5697381.5797350.2227320.8077291.4367236.5197201.4977166.5537131.7877095.3837076.372
GDP – total, USD mill. 33125.69832402222634.68812877324948.92092616919629.58483619319508.10108408225073.01826215212362.67561087316142.98845926521197.35450011224834.04652849926188.88486809630662.92828848740331.02371158449223.66181826742684.55132489839370.35116408646463.68740983640675.91801345745512.0619068744143.14756586837145.68740049837740.909135837
GDP – per capita, USD3342.02038443392277.67260702192505.75151854792012.08803970232587.14371876013335.79883924341647.60258549292152.38956469182833.64703405283327.55247256613519.64761546784137.17099422375463.73935869066696.89457247235830.58006103685399.53325573816420.72347351485648.25869030526350.62098987756189.63347697685235.19130686785333.3698589951
Аverage exchange rate, USD1.794.975.72259.343311.004716.476766.396864.29457.561958.445966.874667.025558.393455.764167.473177.906673.338288.116985.173188.5408108.8543111.2903
GDP – total, EUR mill. 18294.06050276927356.80608163613805.45697957217100.49263518618737.96397254219966.62984550221103.29869478924434.61724572929451.57320794433704.52293392130654.67681798229766.28420534733423.80103226931683.09618245634262.94515759233318.5821697133491.04634366134115.243193719
GDP – per capita, EUR2426.13894178433639.64166652731839.88542038982280.0562604592504.87748528722675.35974996942836.17173101183296.82112461333989.87441683464585.51087761994187.33574290134082.36240506634618.76781257244399.51529278654780.9518966224671.84201795574720.11818722984821.0076001826
Аverage exchange rate, EUR 11.73515.101259.457860.69465.11772.693782.990484.110179.96481.440593.9517103.0431101.9502113.1277113.1369117.306120.7328123.1179
GDP, real growth rates (%) 2.47.22.4-12.17.857.14.495.54.95.95.4-3.10.61.4-12.6-1.80.82.8
GNI, at current prices – total, RSD mill. 1709082.9608451991076.54612162276744.93828732665045.22504842835229.37062222999632.94094233268315.58897493460113.44151743715738.77673143749898.77746923842439.3413634...
GNI – total, USD mill. 25556.53358442529706.25427817238989.76490985847791.41463860142020.14388878238502.93737555344564.98235537439267.30787757443625.73132516542352.2125107235298.921047339...
GNI – total, EUR mill. 20593.74290092623672.26464029428472.12418447432723.8318164630177.52069012329110.46873533832057.96152410630585.90815085532842.85477798531966.81139472131825.977210529...
1) Starting from 1999 the Statistical Office of the Republic of Serbia has not at disposal and may not provide available certain data relative to AP Kosovo and Metohia and therefore these data are not included in the coverage for the Republic of Serbia (total).
2) Estimate: GDP - as the sum of four quarters; Population - as of 01.01.2016.
Source: Statistical Office of the Republic of Serbia

Table 2. Use of gross domestic product (GDP) of the Republic Serbia, current price RSD mil.

        199519961997199819991)200020012002200320042005200620072008200920102011201220132014201520163)
GROSS DOMESTIC PRODUCT (GDP)59295.0112494.4142770.2183405.1214680.8413120.6820842.11037897.31220160.01451448.21751371.22055198.12355065.62744913.22880059.03067210.23407563.23584235.83876403.43908469.64043467.84200197.1
Final consumption expenditure54909.5105021.0137587.1176662.2208371.4387986.7788841.71005778.51165197.21401397.81667787.61958490.72241715.92598911.82778749.62960459.63247221.23428600.43607345.73648674.83675538.83749365.4
Individual consumption expenditure51949.599053.0128210.3163831.8193471.8357856.9722869.9919230.11069418.71294104.71528465.01803260.82050491.72402414.62592043.22762435.83025258.43188123.73359325.93396339.93432605.6
Household sector44272.083512.6106555.2140763.7168072.6308838.5623148.5774485.3888180.71085766.81309670.01542212.61742315.02038479.92211135.92366203.02596433.62727597.92885534.92922262.32982448.73030238.6
Sector of NPISHs2)400.81211.91368.31396.41746.33985.55743.58289.58754.913564.416439.919427.424207.226525.725237.227349.431151.735537.733243.733555.737219.737760.7
Government sector7276.814328.420286.821671.823652.945032.993978.0136455.2172483.1194773.5202355.1241620.9283969.5337409.1355670.1368883.4397673.1424988.11864246440547.3440521.9412937.2681366.14)
Collective consumption expenditure2959.95968.09376.812830.414899.730129.865971.886548.495778.4107293.1139322.5155229.9191224.2196497.2186706.4198023.8221962.8240476.6731248019.8252334.9242933.2
Gross fixed capital formation6740.612932.119361.025562.828661.058090.3105800.0168009.7222986.1298239.2351667.3457446.4594703.7684243.4566156.5570054.8626666.7758695.15453133668358.1652002.0715462.6748465.4
Changes in inventories1796.48101.76127.2-1924.6-8069.5-14515.551792.051762.546404.0134980.081898.456831.490587.0148176.4-6976.0-3568.958345.0-5632.115817.131742.946809.010276.45)
Statistical discrepancy----------------------
Acquisitions less disposals of valuables176.0215.0263.0315.0330.0413.05.06.07.04.14.13.94.4
Exports of goods and services4807.316889.322361.538805.225186.940705.8184225.1214276.0267977.2351532.3475337.4622031.3667985.9799234.9773197.61010110.41157757.51323598.01597092.41695334.01887235.02138519.0
Imports of goods and services ( - )8958.730449.742666.655700.639469.159146.8309816.7401929.3482580.5734916.1825582.41039916.71240257.01486066.41231073.81469851.81682434.21921029.82012214.02119288.02281581.92446429.0
Current prices, structure, %
199519961997199819991)200020012002200320042005200620072008200920102011201220132014201520163)
GROSS DOMESTIC PRODUCT (GDP)100.0100.0100.0100.0100.0100.0100.0100.0100.0100.0100.0100.0100.0100.0100.0100.0100.0100.0100.0100.0100.0100.0
Final consumption expenditure92.693.496.496.397.193.996.196.995.596.695.295.395.294.796.596.595.395.793.193.490.989.3
Individual consumption expenditure87.688.189.889.390.186.688.188.687.689.287.387.787.187.590.090.188.888.986.786.984.9
Household sector74.774.274.676.878.374.875.974.672.874.874.875.074.074.376.877.176.276.174.474.873.872.1
Sector of NPISHs2)0.71.11.00.80.81.00.70.80.70.90.90.91.01.00.90.90.91.00.90.90.90.9
Government sector12.312.714.211.811.010.911.413.114.113.411.611.812.112.312.312.011.711.911.411.310.216.24)
Collective consumption expenditure5.05.36.67.06.97.38.08.37.87.48.07.68.17.26.56.56.56.76.46.56.0
Gross fixed capital formation11.411.513.613.913.414.112.916.218.320.520.122.325.324.919.718.618.421.217.216.717.717.8
Changes in inventories3.07.24.3-1.0-3.8-3.56.35.03.89.34.72.83.85.4-0.2-0.11.7-0.20.40.81.20.25)
Statistical discrepancy----------------------
Acquisitions less disposals of valuables0.00.00.00.00.00.00.00.00.00.00.00.00.0
Exports of goods and services8.115.015.721.211.79.922.420.622.024.227.130.328.429.126.832.934.036.941.243.446.750.9
Imports of goods and services ( - )15.127.129.930.418.414.337.738.739.650.647.150.652.754.142.747.949.453.651.954.256.458.2
Source: Statistical Office of the Republic of Serbia

Table 3. Individual consumpion for the period 2009-2014, monthly household average RSD

 2009    2010    2011    2012    2013    2014     
Republic of SerbiaRepublic of SerbiaRepublic of SerbiaRepublic of SerbiaRepublic of SerbiaRepublic of Serbia
totalSrbija – sever Srbija – jugtotalSrbija – sever Srbija – jugtotalSrbija – sever Srbija – jugtotalSrbija – sever Srbija – jugtotalSrbija – sever Srbija – jugtotalSrbija – sever Srbija – jug
Beogradski region Region Vojvodine Region Šumadije i Zapadne Srbije Region Južne i Istočne SrbijeBeogradski region Region Vojvodine Region Šumadije i Zapadne Srbije Region Južne i Istočne SrbijeBeogradski region Region Vojvodine Region Šumadije i Zapadne Srbije Region Južne i Istočne SrbijeBeogradski region Region Vojvodine Region Šumadije i Zapadne Srbije Region Južne i Istočne SrbijeBeogradski region Region Vojvodine Region Šumadije i Zapadne Srbije Region Južne i Istočne SrbijeBeogradski region Region Vojvodine Region Šumadije i Zapadne Srbije Region Južne i Istočne Srbije
All householdsAll householdsAll householdsAll householdsAll householdsAll households
Individual consumption - total431985048945012425203441945720532874728645278365734817955498505184783738351565436807158802539514523156013693305693853528422755871367468583855926948189
Food and non-alcoholic beverages 175642083716915169301583517446201601646716962164062037623459190072023719144213392636720279197331950721929261822124420640194772091422982203532109419004
Alcoholic beverages and tobacco190018201840211018051886177319952112159521141972220723531858229523312179263519882352257221682647197725542108259227702760
Clothing and footwear222322872332235418652334240024182548190622962239251024281930294425633580293925482900366830692619213131983537309435142539
Housing, water, electricity, gas and other fuels7026776879367451463377758693884779345322762585309047754050669834115481060810303657994741142210270931763179992114301071599767351
Furnishings, household equipment and routine household maintenance190816542359199215062134189225352137188120811891240320811875268823643002258227572573244229332444240727953056279328532440
Health163125131546140511172002274321701733137218942714202515191356272639602758227819832393345622972221148924923109258121272116
Transport 394039114433420330404363438846505013318742284579513844022545497853805694500736484570525047255209274555886422539062953983
Communication160318441775160711431894220921461815136219122349211218101347253130732829237718042566322928762319168429013446311027052230
Recreation and culture216230372391167215882257383222081648146320722900239118611096236632992849168316502619395128662017148928713671305628061757
Education 4437994443302184598014174611623937713343621245398535566516555891756358494602818485608496
Restaurants and hotels87913118268205819311341888845675940141180989867512722114110210988441285237410549347641406203812201389937
Miscellaneous goods and services191927082215164610882239305525452070124222482683253523461335303142193366266518582794386728732577170134004851299631322576
Urban areaUrban areaUrban areaUrban areaUrban areaUrban area
Individual consumption - total451805020646795440183570247982540414754847094393204975755662514914718840249584356926557540532694734558825718205756652728441236122169033594286008851034
Food and non-alcoholic beverages 177562091616801164491526017708200541603517236165972027323481187861850319010216122680419904182591912322181267182101619267190532111723367204092012919223
Alcoholic beverages and tobacco180216961790205917141764161717852077164119251694207721601835205821541850236418562169246519132411174323351972234125322760
Clothing and footwear235622312419266221262443242623242850217823962274245127182157288625423158306828673173391329932860246134873751306540882947
Housing, water, electricity, gas and other fuels74337683840879085077829688599261816261198035846594827727558210443117261059411047736910269118471086395327347105911173710941102538374
Furnishings, household equipment and routine household maintenance198816202536221215692185188926282247197920631822228921612035267823712916267528592637250630332416253429383144280630202672
Health177124441672149810912116281622111652132620482768213514721363304442562868227921222583359723702238145825743151267220971928
Transport 389336814478411831534323442844484774345342144394539138772609469852495110423137114384533441964600268454516420528256463709
Communication178018621988181613012144228123262148164621862435227021761660276931542914260920962857338730342582194132063544332730692569
Recreation and culture273331902977228221292864419225782016199926073171281024601534291434973341209122573231439732952433193734683915367535352267
Education 559880465371365615843550769147473873409272119621937572689807521029756828151640872391725493
Restaurants and hotels9721306846880696107514378481022852107614128121155799139221409841230902155425841137103691015822015130216461147
Miscellaneous goods and services213726972415176312212449319925542141138324612873257925071546332044353329272721033035404329602525190438325145321733482945
Other area Other area Other area Other area Other area Other area
Individual consumption - total403535189542562411833313542461495234693243658338324593154648491874841636456538206205260536545624312651439565685595754297401105464959438567415847644841
Food and non-alcoholic beverages 172942043517073173511640417067207051706216718162152053323331193122177719276209472416920795210491989221513234152160621966199812059121006202622203018749
Alcoholic beverages and tobacco204124381907215618952060256422882142154823873363239025281880263132122632287521212653311625622875224729162803298430032761
Clothing and footwear203225672212208016042178227225462279163521532064259221711704302826674160282422302457241531872385174427292442314729512063
Housing, water, electricity, gas and other fuels643781967286704541907021785782787732452870428852844673734551895810644106279640579081849250934491095108901598511035897086146
Furnishings, household equipment and routine household maintenance179318252117179614422062190724072040178321072241255920091716270323283119249926552468211527772471225925722601277026912167
Health142928581374132211441839237821141804141716732441187415611348227124722607227818452084273721822206152523612902244021602344
Transport 400650634372427829264415419149295224292242515510479148692481537860436495569935864873482155515798281758206431555069314312
Communication13501752148214219861536184518981518107915181919189514841035219026632712217015132092242026282064138324022935277023501827
Recreation and culture134222691586113010501386202617011320928130315371816132966015782303217313191046162316692196161496318882413207821001151
Education 276391415295712355902341881772792552324421284214315356174924234526134827544555638494499
Restaurants and hotels7461337798767467724860942687498743140580666955211001986126498278684812979268345921119216010911137686
Miscellaneous goods and services16072764194015429561938232825332006110219421730247422041125261531343417261016132402296827372627146426923339265329212136
Source: Statistical Office of the Republic of Serbia

In the structure of gross value added (GVA) by institutional sectors, the largest share, about 50%, in the reporting period was noted for non-financial corporations (54.1% in 2011 and 55.9% in 2014). The non-financial corporations mainly include enterprises and cooperatives, branches of foreign legal entities and other legal entities.

The sector of financial corporations includes the National Bank of Serbia, commercial banks, insurance companies, stock exchanges, broker-dealer companies, and private pension funds, then open and closed investment funds and fund management companies, as well as other financial institutions. Their shares in the total GVA range from 3.8% in 2011 to 3.6% in 2014.

According to Ministry of finance of the Republic of Serbia balance of general government debt as at31.12.2016. amounted to 25,189,346,737 euros, of which the public debt of the central government of the Republic of Serbia is 24,821,798,352 euros and guaranteed debt of local governments.

In 2013, the number of employed was lower in relation to the previous year by 1,6%.

In 2013, wages without taxes and contributions were nominally higher by 5.7%, compared to 2012when they were lower by 1.9% in real terms.

It has been estimated that the annual inflation will amount to 2.3%.

Challenges:
Macroeconomic stability
Strengthening of innovation and modernization of industry
Stimulating of foreign investments
Improvement of structure and increase of export value
Living standard improvement
Creation of new jobs

MARKET
EXPORT PARTNERS: Italy 43.4%, Kosovo 9.8%, US 7.7%, China 6.2%, Greece %,Spain 4.8% (2015)

IMPORT PARTNERS: Italy 33.5%, Greece 9%, China 10.1%, Germany 5.2%,Turkey 6.7% (2015)

WORLD BANK OVERVIEW

Looking across the sectors of the economy, growth in 2016 was broad based. Agricultural output increased by 8.3% y-o-y in real terms in 2016, and value added in industry increased by 3.6% and in services by 2.2% compared to 2015.
In 2016, real wages increased by 2.6% (y-o-y) after declining for three consecutive years. However, almost a third of the increase in employment came from the informal sector. Youth unemployment dropped but remains high at 31.2%.

LABOUR MARKET

According to the Survey of Labor Force (Statistical Office of the Republic of Serbia), the number of active persons (labor force, composed of employed and unemployed persons) amounted to 3 126 100 in 2015, being a decrease of 1.3% to 2014. Observed by regions, the largest fall in the labor force was recorded in the Region Vojvodine (3.4%), and by sex the fall was somewhat more significant in women than in men (1.4% of active women and 1.2% of active men less than in 2014). In 2015, the number of unemployed persons totaled 551 900, while the unemployment rate was 17.7%, being by 1.5% below that in 2014. This rate in women was 18.8%, i.e. by 2.0% above the unemployment rate in men (16.8%).

INDUSTRY
According to Statistical yearbook of the Republic of Serbia 2016, in 2015, compared with 2014, industrial production in the Republic of Serbia increased by 8.3%. The volume of industrial production in 2015, compared with 2014, saw a growth in 21 divisions, with a share of 88% in the structure of industrial production, and a fall in nine divisions with a share of 12%. Observed by sections, in 2015, compared with 2014, the following trends were recorded: section of Electricity, gas, steam and air conditioning supply – increase of 18.8%, section of Mining and quarrying – increase of 10.6% and section of Manufacturing – increase of 5.3%. Data on industrial production by MIGs in 2015 compared with the previous year expressed growth in the production of: energy (16.9%), intermediate goods, energy excluded (5.3%), non-durable consumer goods (5.0%), capital goods (3.1%) and durable consumer goods (1.0%). The largest influence on industrial production growth in 2015, compared to 2014, had the divisions of: Electricity, gas, steam and air conditioning supply; Mining of coal and lignite; Manufacture of tobacco products; Manufacture of basic pharmaceutical products and pharmaceutical preparations; Manufacture of basic metals.

Table 1. Indices of turnover in industry, by MIGs and sections

 2016 2017             
IIIIIIIVVVIVIIVIIIIXXXIXIII
Indice of turnower in industry - total
Total102.2128.1148.1147.7139.4149.9146.5140.3158.0152.5153.8168.8108.9
Energy66.469.481.290.793.7100.2114.3106.697.9117.1119.8119.491.9
Intermediate goods104.1148.8173.3161.9155.1166.4159.3162.2182.0170.4171.8175.4117.6
Capital goods143.6166.7181.1193.4188.0182.5153.4112.5182.5154.6163.0191.6135.8
Durable consumer goods134.0174.9203.8198.2209.6220.1228.4224.2266.9260.9240.0215.8141.1
Non-durable consumer goods94.3108.6127.7131.0115.8132.2135.1132.9136.0137.1137.3165.293.9
Mining and quarrying59.760.578.887.986.278.381.488.591.9102.1100.2108.266.5
Manufacturing103.9130.6150.7149.9141.5152.7148.9142.4160.6154.6155.9171.1110.5
Indice of turnower in industry on domestic market
Total77.399.1118.8115.8107.8119.6113.4114.5124.5123.1121.1140.280.7
Energy64.466.675.687.988.795.5104.496.092.5111.7110.9114.389.1
Intermediate goods103.0154.2180.7162.5155.2169.5150.6155.6180.2167.1159.9173.898.5
Capital goods42.150.662.661.365.067.855.653.975.070.675.099.958.4
Durable consumer goods100.0150.0153.5152.6154.8164.4163.7193.9199.8195.4176.8181.796.3
Non-durable consumer goods74.184.4106.1108.292.4107.2107.1107.8108.1109.5109.3135.272.1
Mining and quarrying51.452.867.180.175.866.369.976.082.989.885.095.164.6
Manufacturing78.5101.1121.1117.4109.2122.0115.3116.3126.4124.7122.7142.281.4
Indice of turnower in industry on non-domestic market
Total174.8211.6230.5238.6230.1235.9241.5212.2253.2235.3247.4247.4191.4
Energy87.0101.0148.9120.7151.8154.0234.6237.4162.3177.7227.0176.3122.2
Intermediate goods105.9139.5161.1160.9155.1161.3174.5173.7185.5176.4192.4178.3150.6
Capital goods459.9528.0543.5601.5563.4528.9449.7278.4501.0397.0416.5443.5362.6
Durable consumer goods200.5220.4301.7285.9316.6328.1355.1279.5397.3388.3362.9278.8229.4
Non-durable consumer goods188.8222.9224.9234.3223.8247.3265.8248.0266.0265.2267.1302.3197.1
Mining and quarrying343.0320.3478.1353.5435.2487.4473.5514.7399.2520.7616.1558.2129.7
Manufacturing174.0211.0229.3238.2229.1234.7240.5210.8252.6233.9245.9246.1191.5
Source: Statistical office of the Republic of Serbia

Table 2. Industrial production indices, by sections, MIGs and divisions

 2016 2017                
IIIIIIVVVIVIIVIIIIXXXIXIIIII
Industry total105.1117.9114.4111.6112.1109.7109.2113.0119.4118.8119.297.9102.9
Energy120.6125.8110.4105.692.1102.5104.286.7113.5115.2119.0116.0108.1
Intermediate goods, except energy93.3111.5113.9113.7117.2108.7110.8116.3113.9108.2106.683.697.0
Capital goods138.1155.7150.3148.6150.1138.4110.3158.0145.7154.7161.1131.6148.8
Durable consumer goods87.096.697.4105.2114.2115.3125.0142.0140.0128.3105.867.492.0
Non-durable consumer goods92.0106.7109.7105.3116.8108.9108.4120.6118.4118.8119.485.691.4
Mining and quarrying110.3116.6109.798.684.9115.1117.3116.6120.1117.0117.2102.4108.8
Mining of coal and lignite108.4107.695.578.160.5102.4105.7103.4107.2106.6112.5101.6107.7
Extraction of crude petroleum and natural gas114.7122.4116.7121.0114.3116.3119.2110.3113.4109.7111.7113.898.8
Mining of metal ores132.3145.3149.9153.4141.1148.3146.2155.0159.8154.7143.2131.3135.2
Other mining and quarrying58.8101.8111.2105.0113.5124.6124.0126.0125.2108.086.722.756.1
Manufacturing98.5114.6117.5115.7121.9114.9111.0117.7123.0121.1119.991.0100.5
Manufacture of food products83.599.999.996.3106.295.597.8122.9122.9121.1119.382.886.2
Manufacture of beverages67.797.7118.6110.2128.5129.9122.0101.983.291.4107.961.470.9
Manufacture of tobacco products124.2151.4149.8152.6160.1150.1133.7154.5174.0181.8151.5125.7144.7
Manufacture of textiles58.156.979.976.678.561.260.289.584.788.779.669.961.2
Manufacture of wearing apparel117.8129.5120.8116.7119.7108.692.2118.5111.4112.9102.995.4109.8
Manufacture of leather and related products67.864.159.358.262.664.745.452.756.759.052.253.161.4
Manufacture of wood and of products of wood and cork, except furniture manufacture of articles of articles of straw and plaiting materials124.4135.0150.4136.8128.3119.4140.0148.0150.8144.7144.4108.5113.1
Manufacture of paper and paper products115.9130.6127.2130.2131.7120.8122.9133.0133.8122.2142.4110.6122.4
Printing and reproduction of recorded media121.5131.9125.686.1111.389.8136.8114.3133.694.5114.278.275.8
Manufacture of coke and refned petroleum products114.2128.7150.4149.7141.3159.9121.223.9150.6144.3134.3115.8105.9
Manufacture of chemicals and chemical products98.9120.3113.2112.9130.6107.0115.6116.7103.988.687.777.997.8
Manufacture of basic pharmaceutical products and pharmaceutical preparations147.9143.6142.9160.9151.1152.9146.3150.2140.2156.1159.4138.2150.7
Manufacture of rubber and plastic products111.8138.1135.5134.7140.2133.3123.5133.7131.2124.0123.4108.7127.7
Manufacture of other non-metallic mineral products53.686.9112.0108.2113.8106.6114.4111.6111.6100.782.136.555.8
Manufacture of basic metals59.260.461.371.169.873.573.572.671.074.877.964.260.3
Manufacture of fabricated metal products, except machinery and equipment100.6112.9113.5113.7121.5107.0112.8120.6120.7123.0119.085.3105.0
Manufacture of computer, electronic and optical products49.268.754.260.062.951.452.561.860.299.0107.551.954.0
Manufacture of electrical equipment120.2132.9134.1128.0142.2133.1121.2148.4147.9142.2117.4104.7120.2
Manufacture of machinery and equipment n.e.c.101.6119.1108.6107.3107.5128.489.7132.1124.1123.2132.7118.2151.2
Manufacture of motor vehicles, trailers and semi-trailers323.9337.4367.5349.2315.5249.1200.9315.9266.8259.4273.8287.1314.4
Manufacture of other transport equipment36.733.719.635.628.224.122.444.946.263.045.246.635.4
Manufacture of furniture68.175.378.780.286.290.9101.8106.0104.4100.498.444.678.2
Other manufacturing129.4167.4130.1128.0156.5139.682.9209.2242.9234.6245.2114.2108.4
Repair and installation of machinery and equipment68.374.766.067.170.265.862.466.764.270.261.045.344.6
Electricity, gas, steam and air conditioning supply123.9128.3104.1101.187.589.099.094.9106.1110.1116.4118.4108.1
Electricity, gas, steam and air conditioning supply123.9128.3104.1101.187.589.099.094.9106.1110.1116.4118.4108.1
Source: Statistical office of the Republic of Serbia

Table 3. Industrial production index, by activity 2016

  2016/january2016/february2016/march2016/april2016/may2016/june2016/july2016/august2016/september2016/october2016/november2016/december
Base industrial production index, by activity - Republic of Serbia
Total95.3105.1117.9114.4111.6112.1109.7109.2113119.4118.8119.2
B MINING AND QUARRYING107110.3116.6109.798.684.9115.1117.3116.6120.1117117.2
    05 Mining of coal and lignite108108.4107.695.578.160.5102.4105.7103.4107.2106.6112.5
    06 Extraction of crude petroleum and natural gas122.9114.7122.4116.7121114.3116.3119.2110.3113.4109.7111.7
    07 Mining of metal ores128.6132.3145.3149.9153.4141.1148.3146.2155159.8154.7143.2
    08 Other mining and quarrying23.458.8101.8111.2105113.5124.6124126125.210886.7
C MANUFACTURING84.398.5114.6117.5115.7121.9114.9111117.7123121.1119.9
    10 Manufacture of food products75.383.599.999.996.3106.295.597.8122.9122.9121.1119.3
    11 Manufacture of beverages66.767.797.7118.6110.2128.5129.9122101.983.291.4107.9
    12 Manufacture of tobacco products114124.2151.4149.8152.6160.1150.1133.7154.5174181.8151.5
    13 Manufacture of textiles51.458.156.979.976.678.561.260.289.584.788.779.6
    14 Manufacture of wearing apparel86.6117.8129.5120.8116.7119.7108.692.2118.5111.4112.9102.9
    15 Manufacture of leather and related products60.967.864.159.358.262.664.745.452.756.75952.2
    16 Manufacture of wood and of products of wood and cork, except furniture; manufacture of articles of straw and plaiting materials107124.4135150.4136.8128.3119.4140148150.8144.7144.4
    17 Manufacture of paper and paper products103.5115.9130.6127.2130.2131.7120.8122.9133133.8122.2142.4
    18 Printing and reproduction of recorded media69.6121.5131.9125.686.1111.389.8136.8114.3133.694.5114.2
    19 Manufacture of coke and refined petroleum products126.1114.2128.7150.4149.7141.3159.9121.223.9150.6144.3134.3
    20 Manufacture of chemicals and chemical products77.598.9120.3113.2112.9130.6107115.6116.7103.988.687.7
    21 Manufacture of basic pharmaceutical products and pharmaceutical preparations106.8147.9143.6142.9160.9151.1152.9146.3150.2140.2156.1159.4
    22 Manufacture of rubber and plastic products93111.8138.1135.5134.7140.2133.3123.5133.7131.2124123.4
    23 Manufacture of other non-metallic mineral products36.653.686.9112108.2113.8106.6114.4111.6111.6100.782.1
    24 Manufacture of basic metals43.159.260.461.371.169.873.573.572.67174.877.9
    25 Manufacture of fabricated metal products, except machinery and equipment76.9100.6112.9113.5113.7121.5107112.8120.6120.7123119
    26 Manufacture of computer, electronic and optical products57.749.268.754.26062.951.452.561.860.299107.5
    27 Manufacture of electrical equipment98.8120.2132.9134.1128142.2133.1121.2148.4147.9142.2117.4
    28 Manufacture of machinery and equipment n.e.c.83.5101.6119.1108.6107.3107.5128.489.7132.1124.1123.2132.7
    29 Manufacture of motor vehicles, trailers and semi-trailers299.5323.9337.4367.5349.2315.5249.1200.9315.9266.8259.4273.8
    30 Manufacture of other transport equipment37.636.733.719.635.628.224.122.444.946.26345.2
    31 Manufacture of furniture55.768.175.378.780.286.290.9101.8106104.4100.498.4
    32 Other manufacturing114129.4167.4130.1128156.5139.682.9209.2242.9234.6245.2
    33 Repair and installation of machinery and equipment57.268.374.76667.170.265.862.466.764.270.261
D ELECTRICITY, GAS, STEAM AND AIR CONDITIONING SUPPLY127.3123.9128.3104.1101.187.5899994.9106.1110.1116.4
    35 Electricity, gas, steam and air conditioning supply127.3123.9128.3104.1101.187.5899994.9106.1110.1116.4
Source: Statistical office of the Republic of Serbia

Table 4. Industrial production index, by MIG 2016

  20162016/january2016/february2016/march2016/april2016/may2016/june2016/july2016/august2016/september2016/october2016/november2016/december
Base industrial production index, by MIG, Republic of Serbia
Total112.195.3105.1117.9114.4111.6112.1109.7109.2113119.4118.8119.2
Energy110124.7120.6125.8110.4105.692.1102.5104.286.7113.5115.2119
Intermediate goods107.47593.3111.5113.9113.7117.2108.7110.8116.3113.9108.2106.6
Capital goods144.3120.5138.1155.7150.3148.6150.1138.4110.3158145.7154.7161.1
Durable consumer goods111.176.78796.697.4105.2114.2115.3125142140128.3105.8
Non-durable consumer goods108.678.492106.7109.7105.3116.8108.9108.4120.6118.4118.8119.4
Source: Statistical office of the Republic of Serbia

FOREIGN TRADE
Foreign trade
INVESTMENT
POTENTIALS:

Skilled and productive labor force:

The number of engineers, managers, and other specialists is sufficient to meet the growing demand of international companies. Yearly, the labor supply increases by approximately 47,500 university and 2-year college graduates. In addition, there are also a significant number of Serbian experts, who return to the country after gaining top-quality expertise in international companies around the globe.

Among other potentials, according to Development Agency of Serbia are: competitive tax rates and low operating costs, proactive and supportive government, optimal geografic location (connection to Rhine-Main-Danube Canal, access to rail port of Budapest, connection to Adriatic Sea, connection to Mediterranean Sea).

STATISTICS (INVESTMENTS IN FIXED ASSETS)

In 2014 the realized investments in fixed assets in the Republic of Serbia decreased in nominal terms by 4% when related to 2013. Observed by activities, in 2014 the highest share on the level of the Republic of Serbia in the realized investments was recorded for the section of manufacturing, 21.1%, the section of electricity, gas, steam and air conditioning supply, 11.8%, the section of wholesale and retail trade; repair of motor vehicles and motorcycles, 11.4%, the section mining and quarrying, 8.4%, followed by the section of information and communications, 8%, the section of professional, scientific and technical activities, 7.8%, the section of transportation and storage, 7.2%, the section of public administration, defense; compulsory social security, 6.5%, the section of construction, 3.8%, the section of agriculture, forestry and fishing, 3.6%, the section of financial and insurance activities, 2.4%, the section of administrative and support service activities, 1.7% the section of water supply; sewerage, waste management and remediation activities, 1.6%, etc. By construction character, the highest share of investments was noted for building and purchase of new capacities, 44.4%, then for reconstruction, modernization and extensions of existing capacities, 37.8%, and for maintenance, 17.7%. Observed by principal sources of financing, the highest share in payments for investments in fixed assets was noted for payments from own resources, 74.7%. (Source: Statistical Office of the Republic of Serbia)

ENERGY
The main producer of electricity in Serbia is Elektroprivreda Srbije.The company has an installed capacity of 8,379 MW and generates 38.9 TWh of electricity per year. Its installed capacity in lignite-fired thermal power plant is 5,171 MW, gas-fired and liquid fuel-fired combined heat and power plants is 353 MW, wind power is 320 MW, and hydro power plants is 2,835 MW.[2] EPS is also the largest producer of lignite in Serbia operating in the Kolubara and Kostolac basins, producing around 37 million tonnes per year.

In order to increase the efficiency of the sector through the action of market mechanisms in the production and supply of electricity, the Serbian government has been introduced competition in the electricity sector by adopting the Law on Energy in 2004. All electricity consumers are tariff buyers which are, according to the law, provided by electricity retailer responsible to supply tariff customers within Elektroprivreda Srbije at regulated prices. At the same time buyers who meet the criteria according to the Act is given the opportunity to become a qualified buyer, and thus get the opportunity to purchase electricity on the open market. In the first phase, the electricity market has been open to all potential customers with an annual electricity consumption was above 25 GWh. From 1 January 2007, the Council of the Energy Agency of the Republic of Serbia made decision that the right to acquire the status of an eligible customer is available to all electricity customers with an annual consumption of more than 3 GWh.

Naftna Industrija Srbije is the only company in Serbia which deals with exploration and production of crude oil and gas, as well as with production of geothermal energy.[4] The company disposes with all necessary equipment for the performance of a whole range of complex activities such as geophysical exploration, control of production of crude oil, gas and geothermal energy. The majority of NIS oil fields are located on the territory of Serbia, in Banat region, but upstream has business operations both in Serbia and abroad. In 2011 NIS started to expand business in south-east Europe: in Bosnia and Herzegovina, Romania and Hungary.

Table 1. Balance of Electricity 2015

 Solar photovoltaicHydro EnergyElectricitySolar photovoltaicHydro EnergyElectricity
GwhTJ
Primary production1110783_4038819_
Import__6303__22692
Export__7221__25995
Stock changes______
Bunkers______
Gross inland consumption1110783-9184038819-3303
Statistical difference______
Transformation input______
Thermal power plants______
(ТЕ-ТО) / CHP______
Autoproducers______
District heating plants______
Oil and gas extraction______
Refineries______
Petrochemical refinery______
Blast Furnace plants______
Coal mines______
Coal transformation______
Charcoal kilns and retorts______
Producers of wood pellets______
Producers of wood briquettes______
Other______
Transformation output__27504__99014
Hydro power plants______
Thermal power plants__27133__97678
(ТЕ-ТО) / CHP__53__191
Autoproducers__318__1145
District heating plants______
Oil and gas extraction______
Refineries______
Petrochemical refinery______
Blast Furnace plants______
Coal mines______
Coal transformation______
Charcoal kilns and retorts______
Producers of wood pellets______
Producers of wood briquettes______
Other______
Exchanges and transfers, returns-11-1078310794-40-3881938859
Products transferred-11-1078310794-40-3881938859
Interproduct transfers______
Returns from petrochemical ind.______
Consumption in the energy sector 1_ _5138__18500
Hydro power plants__86__310
Pump storage__1090__3925
Thermal power plants__2529__9106
(ТЕ-ТО) / CHP__18__66
Autoproducers__26__94
District heating plants__97__349
Oil and gas extraction__93__335
Refineries__257__925
Petrochemical refinery______
Blast Furnace plants______
Coal mines__570__2052
Coal transformation__282__1015
Charcoal kilns and retorts______
Producers of wood pellets______
Producers of wood briquettes______
Other__90__323
Losses__5169__18608
Energy available for final consumption__27073__97462
Final consumption__27073__97462
Final Non-Energy consumption____
of wich: Chemical industry______
Final Energy consumption_27073__97462
Industry 2__7105__25578
Construction__318__1145
Transport__351__1262
Households__14062__50624
Agriculture__317__1140
Other users__4920__17713
Source: Statistical Office of Republic of Serbia
TRANSPORT
The Republic of Serbia has a developed road, rail, air and water traffic. The main transport hub in the country is capital Belgrade, followed by Novi Sad i Niš. Being at the crossroads of two big European Corridors in Southeastern Europe (road Corridor X and waterway Corridor VII), Serbia is the transit country of commodities and passengers being carried from Asia to Central Europe.

Road network of the Republic of Serbia is 43,839 km, encompassing: 5,525 km of main roads, 11,540 km of regional roads, 26,774 km of local roads.

Water transport is conducted mostly on the Danube and Sava rivers. The total length of waterways is 587 km (2009).Five airports IN Serbia are listed with IATA Airport Codes: Belgrade Nikola Tesla – BEG, Belgrade Batajnica – BJY, Niš Constantine the Great Airport – INI, Kraljevo – Lađevci Airport – KVO, Užice – Ponikve – UZC. Serbia is a signatory to the European Common Aviation Area (ECAA) agreement.

Serbian railway network is 3,809 km long, 1,196 km of which are electrified lines. The national railway company, Serbian railways, carries circa 6,500,000 passengers and 14,200,000 tons of commodities annually by means of 158 hauling units.

Foreign currency receipts from transport, 2011-2015, USD thousands:
Road transport – 625411
Inland waterway transport – 11645
Air transport – 215647

Table 1. Transport of passengers and goods

  Number of passengers transported, thous.Passenger-kilometers, mill.Goods carried, t.Ton-kilometers, mill.
Transport of passengers and goods
2001974896213204584207
2002974066124219904683
2003910195950217004809
2004891365883235415603
2005890196754282696829
2006921107416287377787
2007846476539270408378
2008868666747303687876
2009866246227226975542
2010798446317257947092
2011780966592247067252
2012772356606223436752
2013720476695243487505
2014702007130247097612
2015657677752265548014
Source: Statistical Office of Republic of Serbia

Table 2. Registreted vehicles

  2010201120122013
Number of registered road motor vehicles and trailers - from 2010
REPUBLIC OF SERBIA ¹
Mopeds8990102661287522582
Motorcycles28956288693436236870
Passenger cars1565550167751017261901770162
Buses8034880588349018
Trucks151687159455144075140819
Trailers340173286233389141780
Work vehicles999273643965728
Towing vehicle11535124431313243209
Beogradski region
Mopeds1202235829455748
Motorcycles7824851083739529
Passenger cars469234489449479685490802
Buses3419387935883721
Trucks49895504214442543681
Trailers67196212655115704
Work vehicles2217499261099
Towing vehicle35323993442410310
Region Vojvodine
Mopeds3435368242906890
Motorcycles996496191099311781
Passenger cars404387440898442157451875
Buses1607182917121749
Trucks34894378033398433243
Trailers76828290781224346
Work vehicles489126721693068
Towing vehicle33933715314211516
Region Šumadije i Zapadne Srbije
Mopeds2224200928194729
Motorcycles6522622874878272
Passenger cars415444452498452139466713
Buses1698179918361814
Trucks43810461854046539659
Trailers11577111161264053342
Work vehicles215498742939
Towing vehicle36143912481114198
Region Južne i Istočne Srbije
Mopeds2116219328005190
Motorcycles4558444374457227
Passenger cars260068276521336804346257
Buses1220120316071650
Trucks22515243022472423818
Trailers79867104624748243
Work vehicles74219548612
Towing vehicle9657767227063
Region Kosovo i Metohija
Mopeds13242125
Motorcycles88696461
Passenger cars16417181441540514515
Buses90959184
Trucks573744477418
Trailers53140139145
Work vehicles031110
Towing vehicle314733122
Source: Statistical Office of Republic of Serbia

Employees in transport and telecommunictions 2011-2015 as of the end of the year:
Transport – 48881
Railway transport – 16622
Road transport – 14671
Pipeline transport – 1269
Public transport – 12221
Inland waterway transport – 584
Air transport – 2601
Cargo handling – 913

AGRICULTURE
Agriculture is the most important sector in the Republic of Serbia, which in the GDP participates with around 17 percent, as follows:
Agricultural production 10,6%
Food industry 6,4%

The most important agricultural products in Serbia are: maize, whale, sunflower, sugar beet, soya bean, potato, apple, plums, grapes, pork meat, beef, poultry meat and dairy.

THE CENSUS OF AGRICULTURE

The Census of Agriculture in the territory of the Republic of Serbia was carried out from 1 October to 15 December 2012 according to the Law on the Census of Agriculture 2011.

In the Census of Agriculture, a family agricultural holding is every family or other community of persons (including single/one person households) who live together and spend jointly income for subsistence, the members (one or more) being engaged in agricultural production, whether as their primary or secondary activity.

According to the 2012 Agricultural Census, the total agricultural land in the territory of the Republic of Serbia covers 3,861,477 hectares, and country has 631,552 agricultural holdings.

Table 1. Agriculture index production 2015.

 Chain indexes
previous year=100
Base indexes 2010=100   
Agriculture, total91.691.3
Crop production86.687.5
Crop farming83.485.4
Cereals77.384.6
Industrial crops79.689.1
Vegetable crops113.285.7
Fodder crops 85.074.8
Fruit growing102.398.3
Viticulture139.399.2
Livestock breeding103.5105.8
Cattle breeding100.598.5
Pig breeding103.8104.1
Sheep breeding102.8148.8
Poultry breeding102.6108.5
Beekeeping279.8168.4
Source: Statistical Office of Republic of Serbia

According to Statistical yearbook of the Republic of Serbia 2016, in 2015, the share of crop production in the total value of agricultural production equalled 61.6% and that of livestock production equalled 38.4%. When compared to 2014, the net index of physical volume of agricultural production decreased by 8.4%. In relation to the previous year, crop production decreased by 13.4%. Within crop production, the value of crop farming fell by 16.6, while the values of fruit growing and viticulture grew by 2.3% and 39.3%, respectively. The value of livestock production in relation to the previous year grew by 3.5%. In the structure of livestock production the value of cattle breeding increased by 0.5%, sheep breeding – by 2.8%, poultry breeding – by 2.6%, and pig breeding – by 3.8%. In 2015, arable land participated with 74.3% in the total agricultural area, fruit plantations/orchards with 4.7%, vineyards with 0.6%, permanent grassland with 10.9% and pastures with 9.5%. In the structure of sown arable land areas cereals participated with 68.8%, industrial crops with 14.5%, vegetables with 2.5%, and fodder crops with 9.6%. When compared to 2014, in 2015 the total production was recorded to increase for wheat by 1.7%, while it decreased for maize by 31.4%, sugar beet – by 37.8% and sunflower – by 14.2%. Compared to the previous year, the number of livestock units decreased by 0.7%, however the production of cow’s milk and meat increased, by 0.6% and 4.1%, respectively.

The volume of forest assortments production in the Republic of Serbia in December 2016 increased by 12.8% in relation to the 2015 average. The data on forest assortments output for December 2016 related to those for December 2015 indicate that the production increased by 20.9%.

TOURISM
According to the data of the Statistical Office of the Republic of Serbia during 2016. there were 7,533 739 overnight stays, 4,794 741 by domestic and 2,738 998 by foreign tourists. Compared to 2015. it is 13 percent more, when it is realized the 6. 665 852 total overnight stays.

Table 1. Tourists arrivals and overnight stays – annual data

  REPUBLIC OF SERBIA ¹  SRBIJA – SEVER  Region Vojvodine  SRBIJA – JUG  
TotalDomesticForeignTotalDomesticForeignTotalDomesticForeignTotalDomesticForeign
Tourists overnight stays - annual data
number
20056499352529505112043012101215121918388203273487856991916495943981374075868322269
20066592622539191312007092089799122870586109472337054915217421845028234163208339615
200773286925853017147567523980131305196109281783448760379123069649306794547821382858
20087334106593521913988872312270132095999131188094264947423146850218364614260407576
200967617155292613146910221309571079709105124876211553959722251846307584212904417854
201064135154961359145215620869331060085102684876730455027821702643265823901274425308
20116644738500168416430542093922944295114962775672347806827865545508164057389493427
20126484702468848517962172190365956203123416275898146267229630942943373732282562055
201365674604579067198839324184071008303141010492860655477737382941490533570764578289
20146086275392522121610542464945942022152292392960454886638073836213302983199638131
20156651852424217224096802680331983722169660999431458339941091539715213258450713071
2016753373947947412738998299107310666901924383112392366001646390745426663728051814615
indices (2005=100)
2005100100100100100100100100100100100100
2006101.4101.899.799.5100.897.698.496.4105.6102.4102.1105.4
2007112.8110.5122.5114.1107.1123.9113.6105.9139.9112.1111.6118.8
2008112.8112.1116.2110108.3112.4119.9114140.3114.2113.2126.5
2009104100122101.488.6119.2103.794.7134.9105.3103.4129.7
201098.793.7120.699.387116.4104.496.6131.698.495.7132
2011102.294.5136.499.777.5130.310383.9168.9103.599.5153.1
201299.888.5149.2104.278.4139.9103.381.2179.697.691.6174.4
201310186.5165.1115.182.7159.9126.497.3226.694.387.673.2
201493.674.1179.4117.377.3172.7126.596.3230.882.373.2198
2015102.380.1200.1127.680.7192.4135.3102.4249.190.379.9221.3
2016115.990.6227.4142.387.5218.2152.9115.8281.2103.391.5252.8
Source: Statistical Office of the Republic of Serbia
¹ Since 1999 without data for AP Kosovo and Metohija
Source: Statistical Office of the Republic of Serbia

Most important fields and branches of the tourism sector in Serbia are: spa tourism, mountin tourism, tourism in big towns, tourism on river and lakes, rural tourism, hunting and ecotourism, congress tourism, adventure tourisme and transit tourism. Services with biggest potential for the inflow of international tourists are spas, mountains and big towns. Most important markets are Bosnia and Herzegovina, Montenegro, Slovenia, Germany, Croatia, Italy, Russia, Macedonia, Rumania, Great Britain.

The center of events is Belgrade, the capital which is very important for tourism development because it is visited by many tourists from all over the world. The most famous Belgrade touristic attractions are: Kalemegdan Citadel, Museum of Yugoslav History, Maršal Tito’s Grave, Nikola Tesla Museum, Royal Compound, Great War Island, Mt Avala, Museum of African Art, Topčider Park, Košutnjak Hill, Orthodox Cathedral, Military Museum, Sveti Sava Temple, Ada Ciganlija, City Zoo, Historical Museum of Serbia and many others.The next town on the number of visits is Novi Sad, as well as cultural cenatr Vojvodina. The City of Novi Sad is located on the Danube, near the Fruška Gora mountain. It boasts the 17th-century Petrovaradin Fortress, the appealing old city center, numerous museums, the Novi Sad Fair, and many festivals and events.The cultural and historical heritage of Serbia dates back to the prehistoric archaeological cites and antic heritage, and it is rich in the Serbian Middle-aged churches and monasteries out of which some are listed in the UNESCO cultural heritage protection.

Visitors to Serbia must obtain a visa from one of the Serbian diplomatic missions unless they come from one of the visa exempt countries.

Tourism Development Strategy in Serbia established the selective approach, whereby special significance is given to rural tourism (landscape, nature, food, customs).

Total number of tourists in 2015 amounted to 2437 thousand Number of domestic tourists amounted to 1305 thousand (12.2% in- crease), while the number of foreign tourists who visited our country amounted to 1132 thousand, presenting the increase of 10.1% when compared to 2014. Realized number of all tourists’ nights who were using the accommodation facilities was 6652 thousand, 9.3% increase compared to the previous year. Domestic tourists realized 4242 thousand of nights (growth of 8.1% compared to 2014), while the number of overnight stays of foreign tourists was by 11.5% higher than in 2014, and it amounted to 2410 thousand of nights. Out of total number of tourists’ nights (6652 thousand), 27.9% (1855 thousand) were recorded in spas and 25.0% (1661 thousand) in mountain resorts. The structure of domestic tourists’ nights shows that 38.3% were realized in spas (1624 thousand) and 33.4% (1419 thousand) in moun- tain resorts, out of total number of domestic tourists’ nights (4242 thou- sand). The structure of foreign tourists’ nights shows that there were 53.4% (1286 thousand) of tourists in Grad Beograd, 7.6% (184 thou- sand) in Grad Novi Sad, 9.6% (231 thousand) in spas and 10.1% (242 thousand) in mountain resorts, out of total number of foreign tourists’ nights (2410). The largest number of foreign tourists who visited the Republic of Serbia in 2015 were tourists from Bosnia and Herzegovina (87 thous. arrivals, 192 thous. nights), Bulgaria (71 thous. arrivals, 120 thous. nights), Croatia (66 thous. arrivals, 121 thous. nights), Slovenia (66 thous. arrivals, 115 thous. nights), and Turkey (64 thous. arrivals, 115 thous. nights).

The total catering trade turnover in the Republic of Serbia in 2015, at current prices, amounted to RSD 67318 million and was by 3,4% higher than in the previous year, while at constant prices, the increase of 1,9% was noted. The turnover structure in catering trade in 2015, observed by type of services performed, shows that the largest share was that of food and beverages (48,3%), then of alcoholic and non-alcoholic beverages (29,9%), overnights (19,1%) etc.

ENTERPRISES BY CLASSES
The Serbian Business Registers Agency (SBRA) was established by the Business RegistersAgency Law. Founding the SBRA has brought about significant reforms in the field of businessregistration, as well as the harmonization of Serbia’s legislation with European standards. Since1st of January 2006, within the scope of Business Entities Register, the Serbian BusinessRegisters Agency has started registrations of entrepreneurs.According to The Serbian Business Registers Agency (SBRA) in 2016. 8,429 companies wereestablished, i.e. by 3% more than in 2015. Within the same period, 33,615 sole traders wereestablished, i.e. by 0.5% more than in the previous year.

Table 1. Units classification in the Republic of Serbia

Units clasification in the Republic of Serbia      
Legal form (form of organization)Republic of Serbia
TotalSerbia – NorthSerbia – South
fact sheet
31. 03. 16.
fact sheet
30. 06. 16.
fact sheet
31. 03. 16.
fact sheet
30. 06. 16.
fact sheet
31. 03. 16.
fact sheet
30. 06. 16.
Total425421431916252075255545173346176371
Partnership 2157214683983713181309
Limited partnership 321319103103218216
Limited liability company - Ltd 12299112469887258884983573336200
Public joint stock company 604593350344254249
Joint stock company 13111299866859445440
State-owned enterprise 732728297297435431
Cooperative and associations of cooperatives257925931389139811901195
Sociall -owned enterprise 351347178176173171
Association/Federation of associations27618281681769418081992410087
Foundation71873562163597100
Sport’s associations, societies and federation12976130847309736256675722
Chamber of commerce262616161010
Business association626145441717
Foreign business entities branch4144233653714952
Mission of foreign business entity1303130312021200101103
Unincorporated enterprise – sole proprietors218723224495113970116551104753107944
Unincorporated enterprise / General partnership422121
Other11011066654445
Lawyer and Lawyer's office
Government body13413485854949
Judicial body2592599494165165
Local self-government units25926394100165163
Local community4133413379079033433343
Autonomous Province body2526252600
Public notary13413694944042
Religious organization1501721291412131
Political organization10911173763635
Institution513850922687267924512413
Genaral association1871758275105100
Professional chamber171511966
Fund11410950476462
National Council2121161655
Labour union877768514579352441983327
Tenant council1252112849104521070520692144
Insolvent estate426424232234194190
The rest1716121254
Sources: The Statistical office of the Republic of Serbia; The Serbian Business Registers Agency(SBRA)

Table 2 Annual indicator on business activities of enterprises

Annual indicators on business activities of enterprises    
2015
REPUBLIC OF SERBIA ¹SRBIJA – SEVERSRBIJA – JUG
Number of enterprises
Total861386048525653
B MINING AND QUARRYING320140180
    05 Mining of coal and lignite1257
    06 Extraction of crude petroleum and natural gas330
    07 Mining of metal ores231112
    08 Other mining and quarrying23785152
    09 Mining support service activities45369
C MANUFACTURING1639192027189
    10 Manufacture of food products299415181476
    11 Manufacture of beverages359206153
    12 Manufacture of tobacco products1037
    13 Manufacture of textiles429204225
    14 Manufacture of wearing apparel921432489
    15 Manufacture of leather and related products288161127
    16 Manufacture of wood and of products of wood and cork, except furniture; manufacture of articles of straw and plaiting materials1326562764
    17 Manufacture of paper and paper products602312290
    18 Printing and reproduction of recorded media868634234
    19 Manufacture of coke and refined petroleum products382612
    20 Manufacture of chemicals and chemical products595362233
    21 Manufacture of basic pharmaceutical products and pharmaceutical preparations584216
    22 Manufacture of rubber and plastic products1066595471
    23 Manufacture of other non-metallic mineral products655381274
    24 Manufacture of basic metals234114120
    25 Manufacture of fabricated metal products, except machinery and equipment19881062926
    26 Manufacture of computer, electronic and optical products900664236
    27 Manufacture of electrical equipment491319172
    28 Manufacture of machinery and equipment n.e.c.834527307
    29 Manufacture of motor vehicles, trailers and semi-trailers249124125
    30 Manufacture of other transport equipment1139221
    31 Manufacture of furniture658375283
    32 Other manufacturing475311164
    33 Repair and installation of machinery and equipment24017664
D ELECTRICITY, GAS, STEAM AND AIR CONDITIONING SUPPLY761485276
    35 Electricity, gas, steam and air conditioning supply761485276
E WATER SUPPLY; SEWERAGE, WASTE MANAGEMENT AND REMEDIATION ACTIVITIES864481383
    36 Water collection, treatment and supply1828597
    37 Sewerage990
    38 Waste collection, treatment and disposal activities; materials recovery664378286
    39 Remediation activities and other waste management services990
F CONSTRUCTION729352062087
    41 Construction of buildings33032347956
    42 Civil engineering556355201
    43 Specialised construction activities34342504930
G WHOLESALE AND RETAIL TRADE; REPAIR OF MOTOR VEHICLES AND MOTORCYCLES32196232208976
    45 Wholesale and retail trade and repair of motor vehicles and motorcycles293119241007
    46 Wholesale trade, except of motor vehicles and motorcycles22302167195583
    47 Retail trade, except of motor vehicles and motorcycles696345772386
H TRANSPORTATION AND STORAGE523231542078
    49 Land transport and transport via pipelines356319131650
    50 Water transport55496
    51 Air transport31292
    52 Warehousing and support activities for transportation15631148415
    53 Postal and courier activities20155
I ACCOMMODATION AND FOOD SERVICE ACTIVITIES31232425698
    55 Accommodation778477301
    56 Food and beverage service activities23451948397
J INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATION43363578758
    58 Publishing activities92482797
    59 Motion picture, video and television programme production, sound recording and music publishing activities50346340
    60 Programming and broadcasting activities440220220
    61 Telecommunications387277110
    62 Computer programming, consultancy and related activities18651608257
    63 Information service activities21718334
L REAL ESTATE ACTIVITIES1043865178
    68 Real estate activities1043865178
M PROFESSIONAL, SCIENTIFIC AND TECHNICAL ACTIVITIES1141692262190
    69 Legal and accounting activities21321753379
    70 Activities of head offices; management consultancy activities42003629571
    71 Architectural and engineering activities; technical testing and analysis27121966746
    72 Scientific research and development35129358
    73 Advertising and market research11351022113
    74 Other professional, scientific and technical activities43734394
    75 Veterinary activities449220229
N ADMINISTRATIVE AND SUPPORT SERVICE ACTIVITIES31632503660
    77 Rental and leasing activities37633244
    78 Employment activities1078027
    79 Travel agency, tour operator and other reservation service and related activities903658245
    80 Security and investigation activities34428658
    81 Services to buildings and landscape activities47238686
    82 Office administrative, office support and other business support activities961761200
Извор података: Републички завод за статистику
¹ Since 1999 without data for AP Kosovo and Metohija
Sources: The Statistical office of the Republic of Serbia

OTHER INFORMATION
Other